* Integrated Writing Tasks
– Find a textbook that includes questions about the material at the end of chapters and practice writing answers to the questions.
– Read an article that is about 300–400 words long. Make an outline that includes the major points and important details of the article. Use the outline to write a summary of the information and ideas. Summaries should be brief and clearly communicate only the major points and important details. Be sure to paraphrase using different words and grammatical structures.
– Find listening and reading material on a single topic on the Internet or in the library.
The material can provide similar or different views. Take notes on the written and spoken portions, and do the following:
– Paraphrasing involves restating something from the source material in one’s own words. On the TOEFL iBT, test takers receive a score of zero if all they do is copy words from the reading passage. Practice paraphrasing words, phrases, sentences, and entire paragraphs frequently using the following tips:
* Independent Writing Tasks
– Make a list of familiar topics and practice writing about them.
– For each topic state an opinion or a preference and then support it with evidence.
– Practice planning and writing at least one essay for each topic. Be sure to take 30 minutes to plan, write, and revise each essay.
– Think about and list all ideas related to a topic or task before writing. This is also called “prewriting.”
– Identify one main idea and some major points to support that idea, and plan how to communicate them (by creating, for example, an outline to organize ideas).
– Create a focused thesis statement and use it to develop the ideas presented in the essay.
– Develop the essay by using appropriate explanation and detail.
* All Writing Tasks
– Increase vocabulary and knowledge of idiomatic speech so you can use it appropriately.
– Learn grammatical structures so well that you can use them naturally when writing.
– Learn the conventions of spelling, punctuation, and layout (e.g., paragraph creation).
– Express information in an organized manner, displaying unity of thought and coherence.
– Use signal words and phrases, such as “on the one hand” or “in conclusion,” to create a clear structure for your response.
– As you practice to ask yourself these questions: